Oklahoma's number one blog for natural and cultural history.

 

Real Heroes Save (Not Slay) Dragons

You will not find one perched beside Danerys Targaryen or on the roof at Hogwart’s School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Prince Charming does not slay one, and Hiccup the Viking will not teach you how to train one. Yet the Sailfin dragon is more than just literature and legend.

 The Sailfin dragon is real – and in danger.

A Sailfin dragon, photographed by Scott Corning

 The Sailfin lizard, commonly known as the Sailfin dragon, is one the most secretive species on the planet and also one of the hottest commodities in illegal pet trading. In fact, until recently, scientists were unaware of the Sailfin’s existence entirely. But thanks to thirty years of research, the endangerment of this magnificent species may soon draw to an end. 

In collaboration with Rafe Brown and Andres Lira from the University of Kansas, in addition to the Philippine National Museum and the Biodiversity Management Bureau, Sam Noble Museum herpetology curator Cameron Siler has spent the past ten years studying these elusive creatures in hopes of answering two questions. 

1. Where is genetic diversity distributed for this species?

2. How can this knowledge be applied to the illegal pet trade?

 To answer these questions, herpetologists conducted 40,000-50,000 biological surveys across 7,100 islands in the Philippines. What’s a biological survey, you ask? Essentially, researchers conduct surveys in rainforests to document all species present at a site. Then, they collect vouchered specimens and tissue samples that represent each species in global natural history collections. Genetic samples are used to develop a DNA database that allows herpetologist to construct phylogenies, or family trees, that illustrate relationships between species.

 

The Philippines on a world map

“It’s always a great feeling to have an example of an applied conservation approach to what we do in a natural history museum,” said Siler. “We stockpile the world’s biodiversity, yet a lot of people don’t know why we do it or what it gets used for.”

But how does this keep Sailfins off the black market?

 To establish sustainable homes for the Sailfins, scientists must first understand what types of habitats these lizards prefer. Then, by cataloguing the locations of all vouchered individuals (museum specimens), researchers can check to see what proportion of Sailfin habitats are government protected – and that’s exactly what the team did.

But according to Siler, the findings were “astonishing”.

 Although the Sailfin lizards are considered a vulnerable species, less than 10 percent of their suitable habitat is currently being protected. But that’s not all. Every single specimen surveyed at one of the major Filipino pet markets came from peninsula in northeastern Philippines. Yet only 0.8 percent of this land is protected.

 

All specimens from local pet markets stemmed from just one peninsula

Now what?

 According to Siler, these findings are terrifying but promising. If illegal pet trade specimens are being collected from one isolated region, enforcement of local conservation laws will be more controllable.

“Knowing this, there actually can be more of a directed conservation effort in this region,” Siler said. “That’s an exciting result of combining DNA studies with vouchered biodiversity collections in natural history museums.” 

Siler, Brown and their collaborative team plan to continue their research in July 2014, thanks to a RAPID grant from the National Science Foundation. This expedited grant allows the researchers to continue collecting biological surveys in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated much of the Philippines in 2013. 

So, what does this mean for the Sailfins?

The more herpetologists understand about this rare species, the more local governments can implement effective conservation regulation. Although the story of the Sailfin dragon is not yet concluded, researchers are looking forward to a new chapter – a chapter of knowledge, a chapter of change.

Inside the Treasure Box: Week Two

We told you today’s edition of “Inside the Treasure Box” would be big, and that’s no bull. In May 1995, the largest recorded American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in North America was collected from Bishop Creek in Norman, Oklahoma. Although specimens tend to shrink slightly during preservation, this bullfrog was just over eight inches long and weighed two pounds in life. Crazy, right?

In 1996, a retired University of Oklahoma professor, Victor Hutchison, and two of his students wrote an article recording the frog’s size, which was then published in the Herpetological Review, an academic journal for professionals in herpetology. Hutchinson and his students also mailed a  submission to the Guinness Book of World Records.

Unfortunately, the record was beat in 1999 by another American bullfrog found in Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology. This frog, collected in 1942, came in at a whopping 8.66 inches long and continues to hold the record for largest American bullfrog in North America to this day. If the specimen from Bishop Creek had been selected by Guinness, it would have been the Sam Noble Museum’s second world-record holding piece, the other being the Pentaceratops skull currently on exhibit.

You want to see more, right? Of course you do! We’ve got all kinds of prehistoric, slimy and brightly-plumed treasures headed your way, so stay tuned as we make our way through the best of the best from each of our eleven collections. Remember, “Inside the Treasure Box” is an eleven-week blogging series, so be sure to pencil us in for the next few Wednesdays. Got it? Good. It’s a date.

See you next week!

The Croaking Crisis

When you think of endangered species, you may draw to mind pictures of Giant Pandas and Black Rhinos, but would you ever picture a bullfrog from your own backyard? According to Save the Frogs, an American public charity dedicated to preserving these amiable amphibians, 2,000 amphibian species are threatened with extinction and may not survive the 21st century.

The last Saturday in April is now internationally known as Save the Frogs Day, a day of bringing awareness to this pressing matter. This year, the Sam Noble Museum’s herpetology collection manager, Jessa Watters, traveled to Cesar Chavez Elementary School in Oklahoma City to celebrate Save the Frogs Day with seven kindergarten classes, while teaching them a thing or two about preservation.

imageWatters teaching students about frog endangerment.

According to Watters, a quarter of the world’s amphibian populations are in decline due to habitat pollution, pet trade, pesticides and an amphibian fungal disease known as chytridiomycosis. Pet trade poses one of the largest threats as frogs are taken from their natural environment and improperly cared for in artificial habitats. On the flip side, problems arise when frog owners release unwanted pets into the wrong habitat, which can create a domino effect of difficulties in a given ecosystem.

Of course, this is a lot of information for kindergarteners to absorb, so Watters focused on teaching the students the basics of herpetology: What is an amphibian? How is it different than a reptile? Is it better to be camouflaged or poisonous as a frog? Watters and the children then drew and colored pictures of frogs while discussing the importance of taking care of the environment and the animals that dwell in it.

imageThe students coloring their favorite frogs.

 At the end of the day, each student took home a 3D paper frog as a reminder that every day should be Save the Frogs Day.