Oklahoma's number one blog for natural and cultural history.
We’ve planned a “larger then life” finale for our ITTB series today. You could even say it is a story of Jurassic proportions. There’s a good chance that you’ve seen the object of today’s post if you’ve visited the museum, but before we reveal the paleontology department’s most prized specimen, here is a little backstory:
In 1994, vertebrate paleontology curator Richard Cifelli and his team found four vertebrae of one Sauroposeidon in southeastern Oklahoma. Sauroposeidon fossils are common in Oklahoma, many of which come from a quarry located in Atoka.
Each vertebra of the Sauroposeidon measured four feet or more in length. The bones were so enormous that Cifelli himself was unsure what he had uncovered at first. The name Sauroposeidon actually stems from the Greek word “saurus” (meaning lizard) and the mythological god Poseidon. The names refers to Poseidon’s nickname as “Earthshaker,” implying that the Sauroposeidon's weight and size was enough to move mountains.
Poseidon, god of the sea and maker of earthquakes.
Sauroposeidon seems to be a relative of Brachiosaurus, and like Brachiosaurus, probably held its neck upright like a giraffe, rather than out in front of it like the Apatosaurus. Sauroposeidon would have been much larger than Brachiosaurus, however. Cifelli and former student Matt Wedel believe Sauroposeidon would have been nearly 100 feet long and stood some 60 feet tall. It could have stood flat-footed and looked into a sixth story window. In fact, the Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the Sauroposeidon as the world’s tallest dinosaur.
Unlike other items featured in the ITTB series, which are too fragile for public display, the Sauroposeidon can be seen from just inside the Great Hall, peeking out from the Noble Corporation and Noble Energy Orientation Gallery. When it comes to fossils, go big or go home, right? We enjoyed sharing a glimpse into our collections and exhibits with you and hope this series has inspired you to visit and discover for yourself the specimens and artifacts featured in this series.
We look forward to seeing you soon!
Thanks to several Hollywood blockbusters, we are familiar with the image of paleontologists digging in the field, but what happens after the big discovery when the end credits roll? What occurs between the field and museum in the life of a prehistoric bone?
According to Mr. Kyle Davies, Museum Preparator for the vertebrate paleontology department, once a fossil is discovered in the field, paleontologists dig a trench around it and surrounding rock. They then cover the piece with thin tissue paper, which serves as a protective barrier, before coating the artifact in a mixture of plaster and burlap. Once the plaster has set up, they undermine the specimen, cautiously remove it from the ground and wrap the exposed side in plaster and burlap. Paleontologists refer to this completed object as a field jacket.
An unopened field jacket.
Field jackets, like the one above, are then sent to museums for further preparation. The above field jacket contains Tenontosaurus bone from a dig at the McLeod Correctional Facility near Atoka, Oklahoma on May 2, 2002. The Tenontosaurus, a fairly common herbivore from the Cretaceous Period, roamed much of North America approximately 110 million years ago. This particular field jacket remains unopened, but will be examined by the 2013 Paleo Expedition ExplorOlogy team this summer.
When ready for preparation, the field jacket is opened using a cast-cutter, the same tool used by medical doctors. Then, paleontologists begin the tedious process of slowly chipping away at unwanted rock to expose the bone.
A typical tool-kit
Due the extreme level of caution required, removing bone from a field jacket may take several thousand hours. In the case of the Sam Noble Museum’s Pentaceratops skull, the largest found in the world, the removal process required roughly 3,000 hours. For this reason, the vertebrate paleontology department utilizes a large number of trained volunteers.
A pin vise chips away at unwanted rock.
Of course, common practices have evolved over many years to determine the most efficient means of specimen removal.
“Everything we do is done under the lessons from the past about what does and doesn’t work,” explained Mr. Davies.
Once enough bone becomes visible, paleontologists seek to identify the species. But how do scientists identify an entire dinosaur from simply bone?
“How do you know what model car you have?” asked Mr. Davies in reply. “You know by looking at it. An expert could tell you a model and make just by looking at a tail light.” He explained that in this way, identification of species relies heavily on specialized knowledge and previous training in comparative anatomy.
Occasionally bone fragments require repair, which calls for specialized forms of adhesive glues. Once the pieces are glued together, paleontologists use the help of a sandbox and gravity to hold the bone together as it dries over several minutes to hours. In the video below, Mr. Davies explains this process.
From here, paleontologists prepare the bone for study, display or storage. For display, bones are reconstructed before use. Sometimes, but not always, they are replaced with precision castings made by molding and casting the actual bones or reconstructions in the lab. Staff members in either vertebrate paleontology or exhibit departments then paint the castings to resemble the actual bone. Finally, staff workers assemble the bones to form full skeletons inside the one of the museum’s exhibit dioramas. Museums are most likely to showcase dinosaurs for which they possess many of the actual skeletal pieces, such as the Sam Noble Museum’s Tenontosaurus.
Our Tenontosaurus display
The original bones rest inside the highly organized walls of a massive collection facility. Here they are protected and available for scientific study, or further replication.
The Oklahoma City Metro area is abuzz this week with the Extreme Home Makeover being done for a family in Lexington. Normally, this would not involve the museum in any way. But it just so happens that this project involves a dinosaur-themed room design for a three-year-old boy. And of course… we’ve got the dinosaurs.
I got a call last week from one of the show’s producers asking if they could come film in the museum, and the crew arrived late Tuesday afternoon.
Now, we do a fair amount of filming for national television programs in our museum. We’ve hosted the Discovery Channel, National Geographic, the History Channel, and the Today Show. But this crew was something unlike any filming we had done before.
Michael Moloney was the talent. He’s one of the designers for the show. And they brought along a woman and her eight-year-old son who had won a national contest to have a chance to appear on the show. They were from up north (Michigan??? Minnesota??) and were a bit disappointed to see that Oklahoma was under several inches of ice and snow. I think they were hoping for warmer weather!
Michael was perfectly charming, and the young man was quite self-assured and at ease in front of the cameras. But what was unusual was the crew’s filming style.
These guys came in like a swarm. They arrived straight from the construction site, so they were bundled in layers of coats and jackets… red-cheeked and rugged. And all with mud-caked boots. The site must be a swampy mess in this thaw. The nice cozy museum must have been a welcome respite from the cold.
There were four, maybe five cameras filming from every possible angle simultaneously — all hand-held, no tripods. The only lighting was a single hand-held job. It was something of a challenge to stay out of their way and to keep the curious onlookers — mostly staff and volunteers this late in the afternoon — out of the shots.
They were all over the place all the time. One minute you’d be tripping over four cameramen, the next… whisk! Where’d they all go? Oh, now they’re in the elevator. Now they’re upstairs filming over the Natural Wonders balcony into Ancient Life. None of these long tripod shots, no elaborate lighting set-ups. Just this scurry of guys filming everything at once. I was grateful to our security guards, volunteers, and other staff members who chipped in to assist various individual crew-members. I heard second-hand that they got a real kick out of the dinovators.
It’s always a pleasure to host out-of-state crews, whatever their technique. I think a lot of people from the coasts come to our museum expecting some rinky dink storefront set-up. It’s nice to see them being impressed. Yes. We have a really great natural history museum out here in Oklahoma. We have great dinosaurs, beautiful exhibits and a really terrific building to put them in. Thanks for noticing.